Web Trends in 2016 – Guide to Web developers


As time inches forward with each passing year, many new design trends loom on the horizon. The field of web design is always changing with new tools, workflows, and best practices for constructing usable layouts.

It’s tough to predict which exact trends will draw the greatest attention. Yet recent history shows a pattern of trends that have been growing like wildfire. I’ve organized 20 unique trends that have gained traction over 2015 and will likely continue well into 2016.

1. Sketch App for UI Design

Sketch is quickly replacing Photoshop for all UI design tasks ranging from low-fidelity wireframes to high-fidelity mockups & icon design.

Sketch App is a Mac-only application made specifically for web and mobile designers. It offers a smoother work environment to craft vector elements for any interface, yet it also retains many features you’d expect from Photoshop like text effects and layer styles.

While there’s no evidence that Sketch will ever be released for Windows, it has still become a valued choice by OS X users. The simplified workflow and cheaper price tag is giving Adobe a run for its money. If Sketch continues to provide the best UI design experience then it’ll surely continue growing well into 2016 and beyond.

2. Browser-Based IDEs

Desktop IDEs have been around for decades with options ranging from Notepad++ to Xcode and Visual Studio. An IDE makes it easier to write code with suggestions and syntax highlighting(among other features).

But traditionally IDEs have been released as desktop applications. Over the past few years we’ve seen a dramatic rise in browser-based cloud IDEs. These don’t require any software other than a web browser, which allows devs to write code from any computer with Internet access.

Cloud IDEs function more like web applications where you can save code snippets to your account for sharing or personal storage. CodePen is one of the most popular IDEs with support for HTML/CSS/JS along with custom preprocessing like Jade/Haml and LESS/SCSS.

Mozilla Thimble is another IDE for beginning developers who want to learn as they code. Also Codeply is great for testing specific responsive frameworks like Bootstrap or Zurb’s Foundation without needing to download any files.

3. Free Sass/SCSS Mixins

Preprocessors have been trendy for years but only recently became mainstream enough to feel ubiquitous across the entire field of web design/development. Nowadays it seems odd to write vanilla CSS when Sass/SCSS can provide so much more.

One benefit is a growing supply of Sass mixin libraries. Simple mixins are like code snippets or basic functions to generate repeatable code in CSS. While you can always write your own, many developers have been kind enough to release free mixins online.

Some mixins come in libraries like Bourbon while others can be standalone items. Try doing a search in GitHub for Sass/SCSS mixins to see what you can find.

4. Card Layouts

Website card layouts were first popularized by Pinterest a few years back and have since become a trend for content-heavy webpages. Free plugins like jQuery Masonry can be used to mimic this layout style with animated cards for various heights & widths.

A card layout is best used on pages with lots of data that should be scannable. The landing page for Google Now uses a card layout to advertise optional cards for the Google Now app.

You can think of card layouts as more dynamic grids with a focus on minimizing content to the bare essentials to list more items together. Online magazines likeUGSMAG and The Next Web are both perfect examples of card layouts used to showcase recent post content.

5. Custom Explainer Videos

Big and small web companies alike have taken to the trend of custom explainer videos. These are often created with animation like the Crazy Egg example. But other videos rely on real-life footage like Instagram Direct.

The purpose of an explainer video is to demonstrate how a product or service works. Visitors may skim a list of features and still have no idea how the product operates. Videos clarify everything visually and cover the important stuff in just a few minutes.

If you want to try your hand at making a custom explainer video check out this Udemy course. It’s an in-depth study focusing on videos for landing page design.

6. Live Product Previews

Landing page design has seen incredible growth stemming from greater Internet speeds and browser capabilities. One major trend I’ve noticed is the addition of live product previews on homepages or custom landing pages.

Take for example Slack’s product page. It features a video tour and vector graphics covering the Slack interface. These product previews are meant to give potential users a glimpse into how the product operates.

Webydo is another brilliant example with a live animation playing on the homepage. This allows visitors to see Webydo in action without having to manually demo the product. But you don’t always need to rely on animations for product previews. Iconjar uses a simple PNG screenshot to show what the product is and how it works.

7. Automated Task Runners

The world of frontend development has changed so much with a handful of new best practices for website creation. Task runners/build systems like Gulp andGrunt are being used much more frequently for a slew of tasks that previously required manual effort.

Automation is the lifeblood of quick turnaround and churning out quality code. Machines don’t make mistakes, so the more you can automate with confidence the fewer issues you’ll have (in theory).

To learn more check out this Reddit post explaining how task runners operate. These tools basically run JS code that will automate parts of your workflow, either custom JS or scripts written by others.

8. Native JS Mobile Apps

I’m a big advocate of using the right tools for the job. In the case of mobile app development this means Java for Android, Objective-C/Swift for iOS.

But not everyone wants to learn a new language just to build a mobile app. Thankfully it’s becoming easier for native apps to be created & compiled with alternate libraries such as NativeScript or React Native.

The gap for becoming a mobile app programmer is shortening with the ability to create mobile apps via JavaScript. PhoneGap is yet another option based on HTML/CSS/JS code.

While the creation process does vary greatly, JS is quickly becoming a solution for coders who want to build mobile apps without learning a new language.

9. Collaboration Tools for Design

Instant messaging and group chat has been around for well over a decade. However these resources have traditionally relied on plaintext with some capability to attach files.

A new emerging trend is the ability to share live design documents within chat applications. Notable is one example where annotations and comments can be layered right on top of a document. This gives designers a clean way to share work directly with everyone on a team.

Slack is the most popular chat application at the moment which supports many similar features. The growing Slack userbase has been adamant about creating extensions that greatly improve Slack’s capabilities & tie into other products like Hangouts, MailChimp, and even WordPress.

10. Responsive Frontend Frameworks

Frontend frameworks like Bootstrap have been around for years and continue to prove useful on projects both personal and professional. Responsive design has forced its way into frameworks and created a demand for frontend code instead of just backend (Django, Laravel, etc).

Moving into 2016 I think we’ll be reading a lot more about responsive frontend frameworks & their value in web projects. Many devs are eagerly awaiting the release of Foundation 6 and the public v1 release of Bootstrap 4.

Other lesser-known frameworks you might check out include Gumby and Pure CSS.

11. Greater Focus on UX Design

The field of user experience design will continue to grow rapidly with more designers and developers taking notice. UI design is part of UX design but it’s not the final goal. UI is a means to an end, with the end being a fantastic user experience.

Just 5 years ago I was barely familiar with UX or how it applied to interface design. Now we have resources like UX Stack Exchange and free UX ebooks. If you don’t know much about user experience then now is the best time to study & learn how UX principles can be applied to all forms of digital interfaces.

12. Package Managers

Digital package managers have risen so quickly that they’re practically a requirement for modern web development. Solutions like Bower and NPM can save a lot of time starting new projects.

Mastering any new technology will take time and comes with a learning curve. But if there’s one thing that every frontend (or backend) developer should know, it’s a package manager. They require some knowledge of terminal commands but once you get used to the process you’ll never want to go back.

13. Advanced UI Animations

CSS3 transitions were only the beginning of a long-term trend of animation on the web. Now we have dozens of CSS and JavaScript libraries dedicated to animation. Things I never dreamed possible are now built & available for free if you know where to look.

Animation isn’t a requirement for good design. But it can make a good design into a great design when used properly.

Keep an eye on animated trends for interfaces and see what you can take away from various websites. Remember that web animation isn’t a Disney movie and should be treated with respect. Use animation gently so that it enhances an interface without becoming a nuisance or distracting element of the design.

14. Designers Learning to Code

A hot button topic this year has been the case for designers learning to code. Some designers feel it’s not their job to write code, while others feel it’s becoming the norm & should be embraced.

I’ve read heated discussions and fascinating posts about this subject which only seems to draw emotional responses. A good design is just a pretty picture without code. Yet to focus on both requires a designer to spend less time practicing the craft.

So is there a definitive answer? Some would argue that job viability increases for designers who know frontend coding. Yet what if someone doesn’t want to write code? Is it worth learning just to compete?

I feel the clearest answer is to do whatever you want. But it seems this topic is still on the table for many designers who will likely continue the discussion into 2016.

15. Free Online Tools & Webapps

It used to be that all programs were run from the desktop no matter what you needed to do. But nowadays I’m consistently amazed with how many webapps are available for free online.

You’ll find everything from URL encoding/decoding to a completely freeMarkdown editor. Even Google Drive has taken Microsoft Office products into the browser (again, completely free).

The current level of computing power and homogenous standards from web browsers offer a seemingly limitless amount of opportunities. Complex tasks likeresume creation to image compression can be handled right from a browser window.

16. The Growth of Web Components

Web components are trying to solve problems of complexity for developers. TheWebComponents website has great resources and materials to give developers a jump start into this topic.

If you’re not sure how to understand modular web components then check out this post to learn more.

While components haven’t particularly blown up to mainstream status, they are being discussed by professional developers around the world. Google has released Polymer which is a framework used for adding web components via JS and HTML.

This may not be practical to use in major client projects just yet. However the technology is available and with a little practice you can master the concepts with ease. To learn more and see a few code samples you can read through this CSS-Tricks post on modular web components.

17. Online Learning Resources

We all know that now is the easiest time to learn any skill from the comfort of your computer. It seems the online learning marketplace is growing exponentially with new courses and websites popping up every year.

I feel more confident than ever before that we’ll see a rise of online learning. Well-known sites like Treehouse and CodeSchool offer incredible courses alongside newer sites like Bitfountain and Learn-Verified.

If there’s a subject you want to learn, there’s likely a course online – especially if you want to learn digital techniques like UI design or app development.

18. Server-Side JavaScript

While there have been past options for server-side JS, none have permeated as quickly as Node.js. JavaScript devs have fallen in love with this library and watched it rise into direct competition with other backend languages such as Python or PHP.

Node allows developers to build websites using a single language for both frontend + backend code. And resources like Node Package Manager give even more value to Node.js.

From what I can tell, Node is still on the upswing and continues to gain traction from industry enthusiasts. Whether you plan to learn Node or not, there’s no doubt it’ll continue to grow as a major trend in 2016.

19. Touch-Supported Website Features

Smartphone browsers have always supported touch features for all websites to maintain backwards compatibility. Yet recently I’ve noticed more plugins and custom features appended onto website companies with the specific goal of handling touch events.

Plugins like Photoswipe and Dragend.js are built to handle swiping and tapping on touchscreen displays. It seems web developers are not only building responsive websites, but touch-enabled websites too.

If you search around you’ll find some really impressive features built for the web that rely solely on touch events.

20. Material Design on the Web

Google’s release of material design was an enormous success for Android designers. Material design is considered a design language meant to simplify the process of crafting user interfaces for Android smartphones.

Over time web designers have taken this to heart and built entire websites based on Google’s new design language. It seems the material design trend has moved beyond just mobile apps into the world of web design.

Folks who want to build material websites don’t even have to reinvent the wheel. Free libraries like Material UI and Materialize offer custom codes for structuring a new layout on top of the material design foundation

Source: Hongikat

Web Company Hyderabad

Server Administrator: Job Description and Education Requirements

The System Administrator (SA) is responsible for effective provisioning, installation/configuration, operation, and maintenance of systems hardware and software and related infrastructure. This individual participates in technical research and development to enable continuing innovation within the infrastructure. This individual ensures that system hardware, operating systems, software systems, and related procedures adhere to organizational values, enabling staff, volunteers, and Partners.

This individual will assist project teams with technical issues in the Initiation and Planning phases of our standard Project Management Methodology. These activities include the definition of needs, benefits, and technical strategy; research & development within the project life-cycle; technical analysis and design; and support of operations staff in executing, testing and rolling-out the solutions. Participation on projects is focused on smoothing the transition of projects from development staff to production staff by performing operations activities within the project life-cycle.

This individual is accountable for the following systems: Linux and Windows systems that support GIS infrastructure; Linux, Windows and Application systems that support Asset Management; Responsibilities on these systems include SA engineering and provisioning, operations and support, maintenance and research and development to ensure continual innovation.

SA Engineering and Provisioning

  1. Engineering of SA-related solutions for various project and operational needs.
  2. Install new / rebuild existing servers and configure hardware, peripherals, services, settings, directories, storage, etc. in accordance with standards and project/operational requirements.
  3. Install and configure systems such as supports GIS infrastructure applications or Asset Management applications.
  4. Develop and maintain installation and configuration procedures.
  5. Contribute to and maintain system standards.
  6. Research and recommend innovative, and where possible automated approaches for system administration tasks. Identify approaches that leverage our resources and provide economies of scale.

Operations and Support

  1. Perform daily system monitoring, verifying the integrity and availability of all hardware, server resources, systems and key processes, reviewing system and application logs, and verifying completion of scheduled jobs such as backups.
  2. Perform regular security monitoring to identify any possible intrusions.
  3. Perform daily backup operations, ensuring all required file systems and system data are successfully backed up to the appropriate media, recovery tapes or disks are created, and media is recycled and sent off site as necessary.
  4. Perform regular file archival and purge as necessary.
  5. Create, change, and delete user accounts per request.
  6. Provide Tier III/other support per request from various constituencies. Investigate and troubleshoot issues.
  7. Repair and recover from hardware or software failures. Coordinate and communicate with impacted constituencies.


  1. Apply OS patches and upgrades on a regular basis, and upgrade administrative tools and utilities. Configure / add new services as necessary.
  2. Upgrade and configure system software that supports GIS infrastructure applications or Asset Management applications per project or operational needs.
  3. Maintain operational, configuration, or other procedures.
  4. Perform periodic performance reporting to support capacity planning.
  5. Perform ongoing performance tuning, hardware upgrades, and resource optimization as required. Configure CPU, memory, and disk partitions as required.
  6. Maintain data center environmental and monitoring equipment.


  1. Bachelor (4-year) degree, with a technical major, such as engineering or computer science.
  2. Systems Administration/System Engineer certification in Unix and Microsoft.
  3. Four to six years system administration experience.


  1. Position deals with a variety of problems and sometime has to decide which answer is best. The question/issues are typically clear and requires determination of which answer (from a few choices) is the best.


  1. Decisions normally have a noticeable effect department-wide and company-wide, and judgment errors can typically require one to two weeks to correct or reverse.


  1. Functions as a lead worker doing the work similar to those in the work unit; responsibility for training, instruction, setting the work pace, and possibly evaluating performance.
  2. No budget responsibility.


  1. Interpret and/or discuss information with others, which involves terminology or concepts not familiar to many people; regularly provide advice and recommend actions involving rather complex issues. May resolve problems within established practices.
  2. Provides occasional guidance, some of which is technical.


  1. Responsibilities sometimes require working evenings and weekends, sometimes with little advanced notice.
  2. No regular travel required

For Careers in System Administration Apply Here



A Guide to Using CSS Variables

Web designers accustomed to using CSS preprocessors are no strangers to CSS variables, but for those of us who are not, CSS variables are now officially part of the CSS specification. CSS variables, or more accurately, as they are called in the spec, CSS custom properties, can be useful for reducing repetition as well as for achieving runtime effects like theme switching. In this tutorial, we’ll be learning how to use CSS custom properties in our web pages.

Declaring and Using CSS Variables

Variables should be declared within a CSS selector that defines its scope. For a global scope you can use the :root or body selector. The variable name must begin with two dashes (–) and is case sensitive, so “–main-color” and “–Main-Color” would define two different custom properties. Other than these two hard rules, the allowed syntax for custom properties is actually quite permissive. Nevertheless, you would be well advised to follow the standard language naming convention of CSS: use dashes to separate the words in the property name.

The following CSS rule declares a custom property of global scope named “–main-color”, It has a value of “#06c”:

:root {
  --main-color: #06c;

To reference the variable, use the var() function. It retrieves the custom property value, so that it may be assigned to the property (#06c in this case). So long as the custom property is defined somewhere in your stylesheet and has a scope that includes the target element(s), it should be available to the var function.

#header h1 {
  color: var(--main-color);

Variables and Cascade Rules

Custom properties cascade much in the same way as rules, so you can define the same property at different levels of specificity:

/* default color */
:root { --color: blue; }
div { --color: green; }
.myclass { --color: red; }
/* applies the --color property at all the above levels */
* { color: var(--color); }

Here is some HTML markup that shows the effects of the above rules:

<p>I inherited blue from the root element!</p>
<div>I got green set directly on me!</div>
<div class="myclass">
  While I got red set directly on me!
  <p>I'm red too, because of inheritance!</p>

…which is displayed as:

I inherited blue from the root element!

I got green set directly on me!

While I got red set directly on me!I’m red too, because of inheritance!

More on the var() Function

We’ve already seen how to use the var() function to retrieve the value of a custom property. What I haven’t mentioned is that the val() function accepts a variable number of parameters: fallback values to be used when the referenced custom property is invalid. Fallback values can be a comma separated list, which will be combined into a single value by the function. For example var(--font-stack, "Helvetica Neue", "Helvetica", "Arial", "sans-serif"); defines a fallback of “Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif” once combined.

Shorthand values may also be stored in a variable. Just like regular CSS, properties such as margin and padding are not comma separated, so an appropriate fallback for padding would define them the same way:

/* definition */
div {
  --color: green;
  --pad: 10px 10px 20px 15px;
/* usage */
p { padding: var(--pad, 10px 10px 10px) };

The browser inspector confirms that the variable was successfully applied:


Combining var() with the call() Function

Very recently, I wrote about the CSS3 calc() function. It, like other CSS3 functions, may include variables in its expression. So, let’s say that you wanted to apply a size factor to the font. You can’t just append the measurement unit to the variable:

/* definition */
:root { --font-size-factor: 2.5; }
/* faulty application - WON'T WORK! */
div > p { font-size: var(--font-size-factor)em; }

However, if we multiply the –font-size-factor by one unit of measurement, we get a valid and usable result:

/* definition */
:root { --font-size-factor: 2.5; }
/* valid application! */
div > p {
  font-size: calc(var(--font-size-factor) * 1em);

Accessing Custom Properties in JavaScript

Thanks to the window.getComputedStyle() function, it’s not only easier than ever to access CSS properties from your JavaScript code, but it also works for variables! Here’s some code that fetches the –color property value of a DIV and displays it. Moreover, the CSS property value is reused to set the color of the property value to the very color that it describes!

var elem       = document.getElementById("alert"),
    theCSSprop = window.getComputedStyle(elem, null).getPropertyValue("--color").trim(),
    msgElt     = document.getElementById("computed_style");
msgElt.innerHTML = "The alert div's color is \"<span style='color:" + theCSSprop + "'>" + theCSSprop +'</span>".';

…which would output something along the lines of:

The alert div’s color is “red”.

You can also set the value of an existing one at runtime, using the setProperty() method of the CSSStyleDeclaration object. Here’s some code that calls the function from a button click:

<p><button id="change_doc_color" onclick="changeDocColor()">Change document color to green</button></p>
function changeDocColor() {
    elem.style.setProperty('--color', 'green');

Since setProperty() will accept any valid CSS code, the value string may include the var() function as well. That would allow us to predefine our color before using it, in order to perhaps reuse it elsewhere.

:root { --color: blue; --new-color: green; }
function changeDocColor() {
    elem.style.setProperty('--color', 'var(--new-color)');


A word of caution, not all browsers support CSS variables at this time. Most notably, Internet Explorer, Opera Mini, and the Android browser don’t recognize them.

Want to try any of today’s examples? they’re all up on CodePen.

Rob Gravelle

Rob Gravelle resides in Ottawa, Canada, and is the founder of GravelleWebDesign.com. Rob has built systems for Intelligence-related organizations such as Canada Border Services, CSIS as well as for numerous commercial businesses.

In his spare time, Rob has become an accomplished guitar player, and has released several CDs. His band, Ivory Knight, was rated as one of Canada’s top hard rock and metal groups by Brave Words magazine (issue #92) and reached the #1 spot in the National Heavy Metal charts on Reverb Natio

Source: HTML Goodies

CSS – Syntax

A CSS comprises of style rules that are interpreted by the browser and then applied to the corresponding elements in your document. A style rule is made of three parts −

  • Selector − A selector is an HTML tag at which a style will be applied. This could be any tag like <h1> or <table> etc.
  • Property – A property is a type of attribute of HTML tag. Put simply, all the HTML attributes are converted into CSS properties. They could be color, border etc.
  • Value – Values are assigned to properties. For example, color property can have value either red or #F1F1F1 etc.

You can put CSS Style Rule Syntax as follows −

selector { property: value }


Example: You can define a table border as follows −

table{ border :1px solid #C00; }

Here table is a selector and border is a property and given value 1px solid #C00 is the value of that property.

You can define selectors in various simple ways based on your comfort. Let me put these selectors one by one.

The Type Selectors

This is the same selector we have seen above. Again, one more example to give a color to all level 1 headings:

h1 {
   color: #36CFFF; 

The Universal Selectors

Rather than selecting elements of a specific type, the universal selector quite simply matches the name of any element type −

* { 
   color: #000000; 

This rule renders the content of every element in our document in black.

The Descendant Selectors

Suppose you want to apply a style rule to a particular element only when it lies inside a particular element. As given in the following example, style rule will apply to <em> element only when it lies inside <ul> tag.

ul em {
   color: #000000; 

The Class Selectors

You can define style rules based on the class attribute of the elements. All the elements having that class will be formatted according to the defined rule.

.black {
   color: #000000; 

This rule renders the content in black for every element with class attribute set to black in our document. You can make it a bit more particular. For example:

h1.black {
   color: #000000; 

This rule renders the content in black for only <h1> elements with class attribute set to black.

You can apply more than one class selectors to given element. Consider the following example:

<p class="center bold">
   This para will be styled by the classes center and bold.

The ID Selectors

You can define style rules based on the id attribute of the elements. All the elements having that id will be formatted according to the defined rule.

#black {
   color: #000000; 

This rule renders the content in black for every element with id attribute set toblack in our document. You can make it a bit more particular. For example −

h1#black {
   color: #000000; 

This rule renders the content in black for only <h1> elements with id attribute set to black.

The true power of id selectors is when they are used as the foundation for descendant selectors, For example:

#black h2 {
   color: #000000; 

In this example all level 2 headings will be displayed in black color when those headings will lie with in tags having id attribute set to black.

The Child Selectors

You have seen the descendant selectors. There is one more type of selector, which is very similar to descendants but have different functionality. Consider the following example −

body > p {
   color: #000000; 

This rule will render all the paragraphs in black if they are direct child of <body> element. Other paragraphs put inside other elements like <div> or <td> would not have any effect of this rule.

The Attribute Selectors

You can also apply styles to HTML elements with particular attributes. The style rule below will match all the input elements having a type attribute with a value of text

input[type = "text"]{
   color: #000000; 

The advantage to this method is that the <input type = “submit” /> element is unaffected, and the color applied only to the desired text fields.

There are following rules applied to attribute selector.

  • p[lang] – Selects all paragraph elements with a lang attribute.
  • p[lang=”fr”] – Selects all paragraph elements whose lang attribute has a value of exactly “fr”.
  • p[lang~=”fr”] – Selects all paragraph elements whose lang attribute contains the word “fr”.
  • p[lang|=”en”] – Selects all paragraph elements whose lang attribute contains values that are exactly “en”, or begin with “en-“.

Multiple Style Rules

You may need to define multiple style rules for a single element. You can define these rules to combine multiple properties and corresponding values into a single block as defined in the following example −

h1 {
   color: #36C;
   font-weight: normal;
   letter-spacing: .4em;
   margin-bottom: 1em;
   text-transform: lowercase;

Here all the property and value pairs are separated by a semi colon (;). You can keep them in a single line or multiple lines. For better readability we keep them into separate lines.

For a while, don’t bother about the properties mentioned in the above block. These properties will be explained in the coming chapters and you can find complete detail about properties in CSS References.

Grouping Selectors

You can apply a style to many selectors if you like. Just separate the selectors with a comma, as given in the following example −

h1, h2, h3 {
   color: #36C;
   font-weight: normal;
   letter-spacing: .4em;
   margin-bottom: 1em;
   text-transform: lowercase;

This define style rule will be applicable to h1, h2 and h3 element as well. The order of the list is irrelevant. All the elements in the selector will have the corresponding declarations applied to them.

Source: TutorialsPoint.Com

JavaScript – Syntax


Javascript can be implemented using JavaScript statements that are placed within the <script>… </script> HTML tags in a web page.

You can place the <script> tags, containing your JavaScript, anywhere within you web page, but it is normally recommended that you should keep it within the <head> tags.

The <script> tag alerts the browser program to start interpreting all the text between these tags as a script. A simple syntax of your JavaScript will appear as follows.

<script ...>
   JavaScript code

The script tag takes two important attributes −

  • Language − This attribute specifies what scripting language you are using. Typically, its value will be javascript. Although recent versions of HTML (and XHTML, its successor) have phased out the use of this attribute.
  • Type − This attribute is what is now recommended to indicate the scripting language in use and its value should be set to “text/javascript”.

So your JavaScript segment will look like −

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
   JavaScript code

Your First JavaScript Script

Let us take a sample example to print out “Hello World”. We added an optional HTML comment that surrounds our JavaScript code. This is to save our code from a browser that does not support JavaScript. The comment ends with a “//–>”. Here “//” signifies a comment in JavaScript, so we add that to prevent a browser from reading the end of the HTML comment as a piece of JavaScript code. Next, we call a function document.write which writes a string into our HTML document.

This function can be used to write text, HTML, or both. Take a look at the following code.

      <script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
            document.write("Hello World!")

This code will produce the following result −

Hello World!

Whitespace and Line Breaks

JavaScript ignores spaces, tabs, and newlines that appear in JavaScript programs. You can use spaces, tabs, and newlines freely in your program and you are free to format and indent your programs in a neat and consistent way that makes the code easy to read and understand.

Semicolons are Optional

Simple statements in JavaScript are generally followed by a semicolon character, just as they are in C, C++, and Java. JavaScript, however, allows you to omit this semicolon if each of your statements are placed on a separate line. For example, the following code could be written without semicolons.

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
      var1 = 10
      var2 = 20

But when formatted in a single line as follows, you must use semicolons −

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
      var1 = 10; var2 = 20;

Note − It is a good programming practice to use semicolons.

Case Sensitivity

JavaScript is a case-sensitive language. This means that the language keywords, variables, function names, and any other identifiers must always be typed with a consistent capitalization of letters.

So the identifiers Time and TIME will convey different meanings in JavaScript.

NOTE − Care should be taken while writing variable and function names in JavaScript.

Comments in JavaScript

JavaScript supports both C-style and C++-style comments, Thus −

  • Any text between a // and the end of a line is treated as a comment and is ignored by JavaScript.
  • Any text between the characters /* and */ is treated as a comment. This may span multiple lines.
  • JavaScript also recognizes the HTML comment opening sequence <!–. JavaScript treats this as a single-line comment, just as it does the // comment.
  • The HTML comment closing sequence –> is not recognized by JavaScript so it should be written as //–>.


The following example shows how to use comments in JavaScript.

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
      // This is a comment. It is similar to comments in C++
      * This is a multiline comment in JavaScript
      * It is very similar to comments in C Programming

Source: Tutorialspoint.com

The Challenges Of A Web Developer

The biggest challenges is staying up to date in web development field.

To be a web developer we must be able to handle the langauge perfectly and that means staying always up to date. Let’s not forget that technology moves in giant paces and we have to be fit and agile in order to keep up with all the novelty.

So, one of the biggest challenges is staying up to date.

A web developer needs to be always searching and discovering new tools, content, apps and other upgrades that are not limited to changes in web developing language, but also expand to the technical, aesthetic, graphic, cultural and social aspects of web developing.

Offering an encompassing vision of technology and its many applications is another one of the challenges of a web developer.

It is essential to develop much more than your hand muscles by extensive typing. Web developers have to dip into the fields of mechanics, engineering and similar areas to build up a more flexible and powerful mind.

Basically, web developers need to invest in their web accessibility, hosting capacity, on-going professional improvement, technological equipment and entertainment.

There is no worse approach to web developing than allowing yourself to become stagnate by standing still and conforming. Curiosity, a spirit for research, agility, concentration, creativity and logic are a few of the recommended traits for anyone who wishes to propel the next generation of businesses developing their web platforms.

Web Careers Job Market

As ecommerce continues to grow, careers in web profession will grow along with it. This means that the opportunities for web designer jobs are expected to be plentiful. The projected increase should be around 20 percent over the next few years. In 2012 there were 141,400 web developer jobs, but that number should go up to as many as 169,900 by 2022.

Web Careers Salaries

People need professional-looking web sites, so they’ll pay nicely for your time to develop one for them. The BLS reports that the median yearly salary for web developers to be 40,000 to 100,00 depending on experience and talent, not too shabby for a job that lets you exercise your creativity and Internet know-how.


Web Developer Skills & Responsibilities

Typical day-to-day activities and marketable skill sets for web developers include the following. Web Developers:

  • Are fluent in the core web development scripting languages: HTML, CSS and Javascript.
  • Should know one or more server-side programming languages, such as Java, PHP and .Net.
  • Use search engine optimization (SEO) to develop websites that rank high in Google, Bing, etc.
  • Test web pages and web apps in multiple browsers, e.g., Chrome, FireFox & Internet Explorer.
  • Implement Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to efficiently control the style of multiple pages in site.
  • Develop websites that interact with popular database systems like MySQL, SQL Server & Oracle.
  • Use wireframes to plan the layout, navigation and functionality of new web development projects.
  • Communicate with clients and colleagues to troubleshoot websites and optimize performance.
  • Some web developers are responsible for designing a website’s graphics and multimedia elements.

Prakash Jaydev Web Developer from Hyderabad

Redirections of some web pages























SQL – RDBMS Concepts


What is RDBMS?

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. RDBMS is the basis for SQL, and for all modern database systems like MS SQL Server, IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access.

A Relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd.

What is table?

The data in RDBMS is stored in database objects called tables. The table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

Remember, a table is the most common and simplest form of data storage in a relational database. Following is the example of a CUSTOMERS table:

| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
|  7 | Muffy    |  24 | Indore    | 10000.00 |

What is field?

Every table is broken up into smaller entities called fields. The fields in the CUSTOMERS table consist of ID, NAME, AGE, ADDRESS and SALARY.

A field is a column in a table that is designed to maintain specific information about every record in the table.

What is record or row?

A record, also called a row of data, is each individual entry that exists in a table. For example there are 7 records in the above CUSTOMERS table. Following is a single row of data or record in the CUSTOMERS table:

|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |

A record is a horizontal entity in a table.

What is column?

A column is a vertical entity in a table that contains all information associated with a specific field in a table.

For example, a column in the CUSTOMERS table is ADDRESS, which represents location description and would consist of the following:

| Ahmedabad |
| Delhi     |
| Kota      |
| Mumbai    |
| Bhopal    |
| MP        |
| Indore    |

What is NULL value?

A NULL value in a table is a value in a field that appears to be blank, which means a field with a NULL value is a field with no value.

It is very important to understand that a NULL value is different than a zero value or a field that contains spaces. A field with a NULL value is one that has been left blank during record creation.

SQL Constraints:

Constraints are the rules enforced on data columns on table. These are used to limit the type of data that can go into a table. This ensures the accuracy and reliability of the data in the database.

Constraints could be column level or table level. Column level constraints are applied only to one column where as table level constraints are applied to the whole table.

Following are commonly used constraints available in SQL:

  • NOT NULL Constraint: Ensures that a column cannot have NULL value.
  • DEFAULT Constraint: Provides a default value for a column when none is specified.
  • UNIQUE Constraint: Ensures that all values in a column are different.
  • PRIMARY Key: Uniquely identified each rows/records in a database table.
  • FOREIGN Key: Uniquely identified a rows/records in any another database table.
  • CHECK Constraint: The CHECK constraint ensures that all values in a column satisfy certain conditions.
  • INDEX: Use to create and retrieve data from the database very quickly.

Data Integrity:

The following categories of the data integrity exist with each RDBMS:

  • Entity Integrity: There are no duplicate rows in a table.
  • Domain Integrity: Enforces valid entries for a given column by restricting the type, the format, or the range of values.
  • Referential integrity: Rows cannot be deleted, which are used by other records.
  • User-Defined Integrity: Enforces some specific business rules that do not fall into entity, domain or referential integrity.

Database Normalization

Database normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. There are two reasons of the normalization process:

  • Eliminating redundant data, for example, storing the same data in more than one tables.
  • Ensuring data dependencies make sense.

Both of these are worthy goals as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored. Normalization consists of a series of guidelines that help guide you in creating a good database structure.

Normalization guidelines are divided into normal forms; think of form as the format or the way a database structure is laid out. The aim of normal forms is to organize the database structure so that it complies with the rules of first normal form, then second normal form, and finally third normal form.

It’s your choice to take it further and go to fourth normal form, fifth normal form, and so on, but generally speaking, third normal form is enough.

Source: Tutorials Point

SQL – Overview



SQL tutorial gives unique learning on Structured Query Language and it helps to make practice on SQL commands which provides immediate results. SQL is a language of database, it includes database creation, deletion, fetching rows and modifying rows etc.

SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard but there are many different versions of the SQL language.

What is SQL?

SQL is Structured Query Language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data stored in relational database.

SQL is the standard language for Relation Database System. All relational database management systems like MySQL, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, postgres and SQL Server use SQL as standard database language.

Also, they are using different dialects, such as:

  • MS SQL Server using T-SQL,
  • Oracle using PL/SQL,
  • MS Access version of SQL is called JET SQL (native format) etc.

Why SQL?

  • Allows users to access data in relational database management systems.
  • Allows users to describe the data.
  • Allows users to define the data in database and manipulate that data.
  • Allows to embed within other languages using SQL modules, libraries & pre-compilers.
  • Allows users to create and drop databases and tables.
  • Allows users to create view, stored procedure, functions in a database.
  • Allows users to set permissions on tables, procedures, and views


  • 1970 — Dr. Edgar F. “Ted” Codd of IBM is known as the father of relational databases. He described a relational model for databases.
  • 1974 — Structured Query Language appeared.
  • 1978 — IBM worked to develop Codd’s ideas and released a product named System/R.
  • 1986 — IBM developed the first prototype of relational database and standardized by ANSI. The first relational database was released by Relational Software and its later becoming Oracle.

SQL Process:

When you are executing an SQL command for any RDBMS, the system determines the best way to carry out your request and SQL engine figures out how to interpret the task.

There are various components included in the process. These components are Query Dispatcher, Optimization Engines, Classic Query Engine and SQL Query Engine, etc. Classic query engine handles all non-SQL queries but SQL query engine won’t handle logical files.

Following is a simple diagram showing SQL Architecture:

SQL Architecture

SQL Commands:

The standard SQL commands to interact with relational databases are CREATE, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and DROP. These commands can be classified into groups based on their nature:

DDL – Data Definition Language:

Command Description
CREATE Creates a new table, a view of a table, or other object in database
ALTER Modifies an existing database object, such as a table.
DROP Deletes an entire table, a view of a table or other object in the database.

DML – Data Manipulation Language:

Command Description
SELECT Retrieves certain records from one or more tables
INSERT Creates a record
UPDATE Modifies records
DELETE Deletes records

DCL – Data Control Language:

Command Description
GRANT Gives a privilege to user
REVOKE Takes back privileges granted from user


Source: Tutorials Point

JavaScript – Overview


What is JavaScript ?

Javascript is a dynamic computer programming language. It is lightweight and most commonly used as a part of web pages, whose implementations allow client-side script to interact with the user and make dynamic pages. It is an interpreted programming language with object-oriented capabilities.

JavaScript was first known as LiveScript, but Netscape changed its name to JavaScript, possibly because of the excitement being generated by Java. JavaScript made its first appearance in Netscape 2.0 in 1995 with the nameLiveScript. The general-purpose core of the language has been embedded in Netscape, Internet Explorer, and other web browsers.

The ECMA-262 Specification defined a standard version of the core JavaScript language.

  • JavaScript is a lightweight, interpreted programming language.
  • Designed for creating network-centric applications.
  • Complementary to and integrated with Java.
  • Complementary to and integrated with HTML.
  • Open and cross-platform

Client-side JavaScript

Client-side JavaScript is the most common form of the language. The script should be included in or referenced by an HTML document for the code to be interpreted by the browser.

It means that a web page need not be a static HTML, but can include programs that interact with the user, control the browser, and dynamically create HTML content.

The JavaScript client-side mechanism provides many advantages over traditional CGI server-side scripts. For example, you might use JavaScript to check if the user has entered a valid e-mail address in a form field.

The JavaScript code is executed when the user submits the form, and only if all the entries are valid, they would be submitted to the Web Server.

JavaScript can be used to trap user-initiated events such as button clicks, link navigation, and other actions that the user initiates explicitly or implicitly.

Advantages of JavaScript

The merits of using JavaScript are −

  • Less server interaction − You can validate user input before sending the page off to the server. This saves server traffic, which means less load on your server.
  • Immediate feedback to the visitors − They don’t have to wait for a page reload to see if they have forgotten to enter something.
  • Increased interactivity − You can create interfaces that react when the user hovers over them with a mouse or activates them via the keyboard.
  • Richer interfaces − You can use JavaScript to include such items as drag-and-drop components and sliders to give a Rich Interface to your site visitors.

Limitations of JavaScript

We cannot treat JavaScript as a full-fledged programming language. It lacks the following important features −

  • Client-side JavaScript does not allow the reading or writing of files. This has been kept for security reason.
  • JavaScript cannot be used for networking applications because there is no such support available.
  • JavaScript doesn’t have any multithreading or multiprocessor capabilities.

Once again, JavaScript is a lightweight, interpreted programming language that allows you to build interactivity into otherwise static HTML pages.

JavaScript Development Tools

One of major strengths of JavaScript is that it does not require expensive development tools. You can start with a simple text editor such as Notepad. Since it is an interpreted language inside the context of a web browser, you don’t even need to buy a compiler.

To make our life simpler, various vendors have come up with very nice JavaScript editing tools. Some of them are listed here −

  • Microsoft FrontPage − Microsoft has developed a popular HTML editor called FrontPage. FrontPage also provides web developers with a number of JavaScript tools to assist in the creation of interactive websites.
  • Macromedia Dreamweaver MX − Macromedia Dreamweaver MX is a very popular HTML and JavaScript editor in the professional web development crowd. It provides several handy prebuilt JavaScript components, integrates well with databases, and conforms to new standards such as XHTML and XML.
  • Macromedia HomeSite 5 − HomeSite 5 is a well-liked HTML and JavaScript editor from Macromedia that can be used to manage personal websites effectively, from an  Web Company

Where is JavaScript Today ?

The ECMAScript Edition 5 standard will be the first update to be released in over four years. JavaScript 2.0 conforms to Edition 5 of the ECMAScript standard, and the difference between the two is extremely minor.

Today, Netscape’s JavaScript and Microsoft’s JScript conform to the ECMAScript standard, although both the languages still support the features that are not a part of the standard.


Source: Tutorials Point

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